Lower back pain: causes and treatment

Pain in the lower back is a rather unpleasant phenomenon that can indicate the presence of serious diseases. The lower back has a greater load compared to other parts of the spine, so it is more susceptible to injury.

Spasm in the lower back can be a symptom of sciatica, osteochondrosis, scoliosis and many other pathologies.

back pain in the lumbar region

Lower back pain: possible causes

This can happen after sports training, a long stay in one position, after an uncomfortable movement.

Risk factors:

  • obesity;
  • birth / recent birth;
  • sports training;
  • sedentary work (drivers, cashiers, etc. );
  • work related to significant physical loads;
  • standing work.

After overexertion, the discomfort disappears by itself - only rest is enough. Its periodic appearance indicates the presence of pathology. Without quality therapy, the condition can worsen significantly: sometimes only surgical intervention is indicated.

Diseases accompanied by discomfort in the lower back

This symptom in medicine is classified into primary and secondary.

In the first case, the discomfort is directly caused by diseases of the back, in particular of the spine:

  • osteochondrosis of this area (one third of all cases of pain);
  • spondylosis / spondylolisthesis / spondyloarthrosis;
  • intervertebral disc protrusion or intervertebral hernia.

They say about secondary pains when they are caused by lesions of other organs:

  • fracture due to osteoporosis;
  • tumor in the spinal canal;
  • spine fracture;
  • muscle stretching;
  • anatomical narrowness of the spinal canal;
  • kyphosis / scoliosis / kyphoscoliosis / Scheuermann-Mau disease;
  • arthritis (rheumatic, psoriatic, osteoarthritis);
  • discitis, osteomyelitis, spinal tuberculosis;
  • disorders of the excretory system: urolithiasis / pyelonephritis;
  • gynecological diseases: ovarian cancer or cyst, endometriosis;
  • complicated pregnancy.

Types of pain

Severe pain in the lower back

They are observed in osteochondrosis. Discomfort is present when moving, sitting, lifting heavy objects and even when coughing/sneezing. Unpleasant sensations can be given to the lower limbs. The patient should urgently consult a neurologist.

Severe discomfort accompanies sciatica. The pain is dull or sharp, painful, usually unilateral.

It can be given to the buttock, the thigh and even the lower leg; aggravated by changing position, coughing, walking. Radiculitis is treated by a neurologist. Patients are advised to rest on a firm mattress that will support the lower back.

Sharp pain in the lower back

This can be caused by prolonged sitting in an uncomfortable position, carrying/lifting heavy objects, falling, impact, sudden movement, as well as drafts and hypothermia.

An acute attack accompanies the displacement of the intervertebral discs. The latter occurs with a fracture of the spine, osteochondrosis, heavy physical labor, lifting weights.

Displacement can also occur after surgery in this area. The diagnosis in this case is made by a neurologist. He also prescribes treatment.

Pain in the lumbar spine

This happens with myositis - inflammation of the back muscles. The disease appears after sudden overexertion or hypothermia. It is accompanied by stiffness of movements. The pain becomes sharp with movement.

Chronic (constant) lower back pain

Periodic attacks accompany spondylosis deformans. And the affected area may tingle. In addition, sometimes there is weakness in the legs.

It should also be borne in mind that chronic pain is characteristic of Bekhterev's disease, oncological pathologies. They can also indicate metabolic disorders.

Displaced pains

Sometimes it seems to a person that the lower back hurts, but in fact the cause lies in the defeat of a completely different part of the body. This happens in diseases of the pelvic organs, pancreas, kidneys, colon.

Back pain: when to see a doctor?

Do not hesitate to visit a specialist in the following cases:

  • the attack lasts 3 days or more;
  • discomfort that occurred after an injury;
  • at the same time, pain in the lower back, lower leg and legs;
  • the pain syndrome is combined with numbness of one limb.

What to do with severe spasms in the lumbar region

If the causes are unknown, the temperature should be measured. An increase in this indicator indicates infection and inflammation. Other symptoms are also determined (violation of stools, vomiting, pain only on one side). You should then call a doctor or the Emergency Department.

If the causes are known, such as a muscle strain or a bruise, an anti-inflammatory drug should be taken first to reduce the discomfort.

Relieving swelling, increasing fluid circulation to remove harmful substances from the body, a single dose of diuretic helps.

An orthopedic belt or even a simple towel will help you fix the muscles and bones in a stable state.

What not to do with discomfort in the lower back

It is forbidden to do heating procedures without making a diagnosis.

They provoke blood flow, which is not always safe. In case of prolonged discomfort of an unknown nature, do not use painkillers. In this case, the disease will still progress, but without discomfort.

It is possible to adjust the vertebrae in any part of the back by a chiropractor only after examination, diagnosis and determination of the cause of the pathology. Vertebrae are not always displaced due to trauma, this can also happen as a result of dystrophic processes. Reduction can compress the nerve and destroy the vertebral processes.

How to treat back pain at home: folk recipes

Alcohol tincture of burdock or eucalyptus will help relieve discomfort. It can also be used for compresses. For a similar purpose, fresh horseradish leaves are applied to the affected area. They are changed daily as needed.

  1. Horse chestnut ointment. The melted fat is mixed with dry horse chestnut grass and camphor oil. The components are taken in equal proportions. The agent is applied to thin pieces of black bread and applied to the affected areas;
  2. You can treat with horse chestnut tincture. A cotton cloth or gauze is moistened in it and applied to the lower back;
  3. Effectively relieves discomfort in the joints and bones "Bishofit" golden mustache tincture. In ½ l of the latter, it is necessary to add 35-40 particles of the plant. The mixture stays for 14 days. After some time, it is filtered and applied at night for compresses.

Nutrition for back problems

To strengthen the bone apparatus, you need to enrich the diet with healthy foods and reduce the amount of harmful ones in it.

Liver and fatty fish (e. g. salmon, sardine, mackerel) are very beneficial. These foods are high in vitamin D, fatty acids and niacin.

Dairy products, meat, cereals, fresh fruits, especially garlic and lemons - all this should prevail in the diet.

There is a lot of potassium in cabbage and spinach, and vitamin C in citrus fruits.

Vitamin A can be obtained from eggs, dark green leafy vegetables, red, orange and yellow fruits.

You should consume less caffeinated drinks, as well as sweets, spicy, fatty and fried foods.

Exercises for the spine

In case of slight discomfort, as well as to prevent such discomfort in the back area, it is recommended to perform a set of exercises:

  1. Lie on your back, put your hands by your body, slightly bend your legs at the knees. The legs tilt to the right and the body in the opposite direction. In this position, they freeze for 5 seconds, then return to their original position. Turn the other way in the same way. You need to perform 10 approaches;
  2. Kneel down, put your hands on a chair in front of you. Then bend and arch your back as much as possible. Perform up to 10 approaches;
  3. Lie on your back with your arms/legs straight. First, the right leg is raised about 15 cm from the floor and kept raised until a feeling of fatigue appears. Repeat the same with the left leg. You should complete 5 sets with each leg.

Prevention of back pain

To reduce the risk of problems, you should follow a few simple rules:

  1. Less time spent sitting;
  2. With sedentary work, every hour do a little warm-up of the spine, limbs;
  3. Correctly lift / carry weights - keep your back straight, do not lift suddenly, divide the load into parts;
  4. Perform exercises to strengthen the muscle corset (support for the spine);
  5. The mattress should be moderately firm to support the lower back well;
  6. Watch your posture, don't slouch;
  7. More often rise to the wall, touching it with your heels, buttocks, shoulder blades. You should stay in this position for 3 minutes;
  8. It is recommended to do sports to strengthen the muscles that hold the spine: walking, skiing, wushu / qigong gymnastics, swimming, yoga;

You should not engage in running, boxing, tennis, martial arts, skiing, horse riding.